But how do you automate something like this in AWS? If you want to share a snapshot with particular users or accounts, mark the snapshot as private, and then specify the user or accounts you want to share the snapshot data with. Load balancer optimization. You now have a CloudWatch Events rule that triggers a Step Functions state machine execution when the EBS snapshot creation is complete. When a custom certificate for an alternate domain name expires, browsers that display your CloudFront content might show a warning message about the security of your website. All rights reserved. Checks the password policy for your account and warns when a password policy is not enabled, or if password content requirements have not been enabled. Relying on snapshots in lieu of backups is a rather … All of the code for this example architecture is located in the aws-step-functions-ebs-snapshot-mgmt AWSLabs repo. This check is not available to accounts linked in Consolidated Billing. EIPs are static IP addresses designed for dynamic cloud computing. This check is not available to accounts linked in Consolidated Billing. You may also want to have retry logic or exception handling for each step. Consistent high utilization can indicate optimized, steady performance, but it can also indicate that an application does not have enough resources. These recommendations should be considered an alternative to your RI recommendations and choosing to act fully on both sets of recommendations would likely lead to over commitment. To test this setup, open the EC2 console and choose Volumes. You can view these executions by going to the Step Functions console and selecting your state machine. If you delete a health check without updating the associated resource record sets, the routing of DNS queries for your DNS failover configuration will not work as intended. Checks the distribution of Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instances across Availability Zones in a region. Note: Data for EC2 On-Demand instance limits is available only for these AWS Regions: Asia Pacific (Tokyo) [ap-northeast-1], Asia Pacific (Singapore) [ap-southeast-1], Asia Pacific (Sydney) [ap-southeast-2], EU (Ireland) [eu-west-1], South America (São Paulo) [sa-east-1], US East (N. Virginia) [us-east-1], US West (N. California) [us-west-1], US West (Oregon) [us-west-2]. If persistent storage is needed for data on the instance, you can use lower-cost options such as taking and retaining a DB snapshot. Amazon Web Services Best Practices for Running Oracle Database on AWS Page 1 Introduction Amazon Web Services (AWS) provides a comprehensive set of services and tools for deploying … A Magnetic volume is designed for applications with moderate or bursty I/O requirements, and the IOPS rate is not guaranteed. This check provides recommendations on which RIs will help reduce costs incurred from using On-Demand instances. And finally, you might copy the latest snapshot to your DR region. As it … 2. When you make a snapshot public, you give all AWS accounts and users access to all the data on the snapshot. To meet these requirements, customers copy their EBS snapshots to the DR region. 07 In the Copy Snapshot confirmation dialog box, click Snapshots (link) to go to the Snapshots page in the specified AWS region or choose Close to return to EC2 dashboard. Looks through the user's CloudFront distributions custom origins, and checks whether the origin certificates are properly configured. AWS Trusted Advisor best practice checklist. Use Trusted Advisor events to identify unused EC2 instances or EBS volumes, then coordinate actions on them, such as alerting owners, stopping, or snapshotting. Checks for Elastic IP addresses (EIPs) that are not associated with a running Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instance. Doing this cleanup helps save on storage costs. Recommendations are only available for the Paying Account. To allow Amazon Route 53 to route queries to the region with the lowest network latency, you should create latency resource record sets for a particular domain name (such as example.com) in different regions. I know this, and to help reader to separate what are established best practices and what is just another opinionated way of doing things, I sometimes use hints to provide some context and icons to specify the level of maturity on each subsection related to best practices. This reference architecture is just an example of how you can use Step Functions and CloudWatch Events to build event-driven IT automation. However, the actions to take based on those events aren’t always composed of a single Lambda function. Now, you can kick off a Step Functions state machine based on a CloudWatch event. All of this snapshot management logic consists of different components. Otherwise, you begin by setting up the CloudWatch event rule in the primary region for the createSnapshot event and also the CloudWatch event rule in the DR region for the copySnapshot command. We then simulate every combination of reservations in the generated category of usage in order to identify the best number of each type of Reserved Instance to purchase to maximize your savings. Checks for Amazon Route 53 latency record sets that are configured inefficiently. If a security group has a large number of rules, performance can be degraded. You can use lifecycle rules to manage all versions of your objects as well as their associated costs by automatically archiving objects to the Glacier storage class or removing them after a specified time period. An access key consists of an access key ID and the corresponding secret access key. Elastic Load Balancing provides predefined security policies with ciphers and protocols that adhere to AWS security best practices. Now, set up the CloudWatch Events rule in the DR region as well. Your completed rule should look like the following: Choose Configure Details and give the rule a name and description. Identify EC2 Instances with Low Utilization. Versioning allows you to preserve, retrieve, and restore any version of any object stored in a bucket. For more information on this recommendation, see Reserved Instance Optimization Check Questions in the Trusted Advisor FAQs. This looks almost same, but is based off the copySnapshot event instead of createSnapshot. This check covers recommendations based on partial upfront payment option with 1-year or 3-year commitment. Using the latest PV driver helps to optimize driver performance and minimize runtime issues and security risks. In cases where you have reached this regional limit, you might be unable to launch new on-demand instances even though Trusted Advisor will indicate that you have not reached any of your per-instance type limits within that region. Checks your load balancer configuration. Before Route 53 can route DNS queries for your domain, you must update your registrar's name server configuration to remove the name servers that the registrar assigned and add all four name servers in the Route 53 delegation set. It enables you to build event-driven IT automation, based on events happening within your AWS infrastructure. The following is an architecture diagram of the reference architecture: First, pull the code from GitHub and use the AWS CLI to create S3 buckets for the Lambda code in the primary and DR regions. This check covers recommendations based on Standard Reserved Instances with partial upfront payment option. This does not make your account secure; it only partially limits the unauthorized usage for which you could be charged. Also, both state machines demonstrate how you can use Step Functions to handle errors within your workflow. As an AWS customer, you might define recovery point objectives (RPO) and recovery time objectives (RTO) for different tier applications in your business. Because Amazon RDS does not support Multi-AZ deployment for Microsoft SQL Server, this check does not examine SQL Server instances. Next, use the Serverless Application Model (SAM), which uses AWS CloudFormation to deploy the Lambda functions and Step Functions state machines in the primary and DR regions. Amazon Web Services AWS Security Best Practices Page 1 Introduction Information security is of paramount importance to Amazon Web Services (AWS) customers. A VPN should have two tunnels configured at all times to provide redundancy in case of outage or planned maintenance of the devices at the AWS endpoint. A significant part of using AWS involves balancing your Reserved Instance (RI) purchase against your On-Demand instance usage. Some information described in this book may not seem like the best practices. The ports with highest risk are flagged red, and those with less risk are flagged yellow. This check currently only checks for Classic Load Balancer type within ELB service. Ensure that your new Amazon EBS volumes are … Run the following commands, replacing the italicized text in <> with your own unique bucket names. When you make a snapshot public, you give all AWS accounts and users access to all the data on the snapshot. Note: This check does not guarantee the identification of exposed access keys or compromised EC2 instances. The … We then simulate every combination of reservations in the generated category of usage in order to identify the best number of each type of Reserved Instance to purchase to maximize your savings. The names of these servers are ns-###.awsdns-##.com, .net, .org, and .co.uk, where ### and ## typically represent different numbers. When the DR region snapshot copy is completed, another state machine kicks off in the DR region. This will affect the routing of DNS queries for your DNS failover configuration. If you want to share a snapshot with particular users or accounts, mark the snapshot as private, and then specify the user or accounts you want to share the snapshot data with. AWS Trusted Advisor offers a rich set of best practice checks and recommendations across five categories: cost optimization, security, fault tolerance, performance, and service limits. If your access key is exposed, take immediate action to secure your account. And, following best practices, you take snapshots of your EBS volumes to back up the data on Amazon S3, which provides 11 9’s of durability. In this post, I discuss how you can target Step Functions in a CloudWatch Events rule. Manually created DB snapshots are retained until you delete them. The state machine then tags the snapshot, cleans up the oldest snapshots if the number of snapshots is greater than the defined number to retain, and copies the snapshot to a DR region. The possibilities are endless: Happy coding and please let me know what useful state machines you build! Because CloudTrail delivers log files to an Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) bucket, CloudTrail must have write permissions for the bucket. The new state machine has a similar flow and uses some of the same Lambda code to clean up the oldest snapshots that are greater than the defined number to retain. Checks AWS ENA driver version for EC2 Windows instances, and then alerts you if the driver (a) is deprecated and no longer supported; (b) is deprecated with identified issues; or (c) has an available upgrade. Checks the age of the snapshots for your Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) volumes (available or in-use). Choose Create Rule. We then simulate every combination of reservations in the generated category of usage in order to identify the best number of each type of RI to purchase to maximize your savings. This architecture covers the pieces of the workflow that need to happen after a snapshot has been created. If a certificate doesn't contain any domain names that match either Origin Domain Name or the domain name in the Host header of viewer requests, CloudFront returns an HTTP status code 502 (bad gateway) to the user. It delivers approximately 100 IOPS on average, with a best-effort ability to burst to hundreds of IOPS. Bucket permissions that grant List access to everyone can result in higher than expected charges if objects in the bucket are listed by unintended users at a high frequency. Actual savings will vary if you are using Reserved Instances or Spot Instances, or if the instance is not running for a full day. Choose CloudWatch, Create Rule. Values are based on a snapshot, so your current usage might differ. You can also choose to require multi-factor authentication (MFA) for any object deletions or configuration changes to your buckets. You are ultimately responsible for the safety and security of your access keys and AWS resources. For maximum availability, you must add all four Route 53 name servers. This check currently only checks for Classic Load Balancer type within ELB service. Instead, your business logic may consist of multiple steps (like in the case of the example snapshot management flow described earlier). We generate these recommendations by analyzing your On-Demand usage for the past 30 days, and then categorizing the usage into eligible categories for reservations. The Lambda functions that are coordinated by Step Functions, The CloudWatch Events rules that trigger the state machine execution. It does not include other ELB types (Application Load Balancer, Network Load Balancer). When server access logging is enabled, detailed access logs are delivered hourly to a bucket that you choose. Some customers also have policies stating that backups need to be stored a certain number of miles away as part of a disaster recovery (DR) plan. This check is not available to accounts linked in Consolidated Billing. Amazon EBS snapshots. By default, bucket logging is not enabled; you should enable logging if you want to perform security audits or learn more about users and usage patterns. For more information,... Use separate Amazon EBS volumes for the operating system versus … A load balancer that is configured accrues charges, so this is a cost-optimization check as well. For bursty IOPS, you can use a General Purpose (SSD) volume. Checks for an SPF resource record set for each MX resource record set. An SPF (sender policy framework) record publishes a list of servers that are authorized to send email for your domain, which helps reduce spam by detecting and stopping email address spoofing. 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