(2015), “collectively suggested that CgDOR for [Met(5)]-enkephalin could modulate the haemocyte phagocytic and antibacterial functions through the second messengers Ca(2+) and cAMP, which might be requisite for pathogen elimination and homeostasis maintenance in oyster.” Varga et al. Muscle pain originates in any of the muscles in the body. The same bivalve eating individuals claim that mussels and oysters are not sentient because they do not have “brains,” and while it is true that mussels and oyster do not have a brain in the sense that you or I do, they do have ganglia. Pain that feels like it’s in or around the joints -- and that isn’t the result of … A calf muscle strain occurs when the muscle fibers in the calf tear either partially or … Do Bivalve Mollusks Feel Pain? The knots feel as if they are small, hard lumps or nodules. With others, the pain … Furthermore, some opioid peptides can function as endogenous immune system messengers and participate in the regulation of the immune responses.” Their study concluded that their “data strongly suggests an involvement of opioid peptides in the regulation of the antioxidant defence systems of the Pacific Oyster.” Endogenous opioid peptides have been described as inducing, “analgesia in humans and antinociception in animals. Acidic foods that can irritate the stomach include fruit juices, processed cheese, and … (2007) were able to clone and characterize, “Lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha factor (LITAF) is an important transcription factor that mediates the expression of inflammatory cytokines” in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.” Interestingly, Zhang & An (2007) describe that, “there is significant evidence showing that certain cytokines/chemokines are involved in not only the initiation but also the persistence of pathologic pain by directly activating nociceptive sensory neurons. Do mussels feel pain? As of this date, I could not find a specific paper devoted to the examination of nociception in oysters per se. As you may have noticed, I’ve taken most of my text from scientific literature. It can be described as a painful, burning, stabbing, aching, itching, or tingling occurring in undefined areas of i do think logically that mussels would feel pain and everything that is living can heal and die. Determining the cause of calf pain (e.g., cramps, a blood clot) can guide treatment. Cold or flu. These might be subtle, so stay vigilant and never be afraid to ask your vet about anything that might signal that your dog is in pain. Do oysters feel pain? Some of the common symptoms of sore muscles include: Pain in muscles, usually making you feel weak. All living things feel pain, speak to them gently, you will feel a great benefit. Mussels in America are dieing in their thousand because of Prozac passed through urine into rivers and lakes.So the answer to your question is yes but they don't care. I am doing this on purpose to demonstrate that I am backing all my statements and thoughts on this subject with actual scientific evidence. Liu, Chen, & Xu’s (2008) described that, “The nervous and immune systems of invertebrates can exchange information through neuropeptides. Claudication. Muscle pain may arise due to injury or overexertion, infections of the soft tissues, or inflammatory conditions. Although they are still classed as an animal they are not sentient beings. At least not in any way we conceive pain to work. Again, these are examples that oysters actively respond to their environment (predation in this case) as any other animal species would when threatened. Unlike plants, but like most other invertebrates, oysters do have nervous systems. Mussel pain: The crisis engulfing our freshwater molluscs Freshwater mussels are among the planet’s most endangered animals. Smith (1991) warned that, “pain might incorrectly be denied in certain invertebrates simply because they are so different from us and because we cannot imagine pain experienced in anything other than the vertebrate or, specifically, human sense.”, Unfortunately, “reports are notably lacking in sessile molluscs, primarily due to the difficulty of quantification of behaviours that occur in these generally small animals whose behaviour is characterized by minimal movement carried out over comparatively long time periods. The adult is not cephalized, yet the radial nerves are segmentally organized (Burke et al 2006).” Most importantly, Johnsen also states that, “We think of animals that have a head with centralized nervous systems and all their sense organs on top as being the ones capable of sophisticated behavior, but we’re finding more and more some animals can do pretty complex behaviors using a completely different style…In the beginning, people built robots like they would humans, with powerful central processing units, complex sensors and fairly complex rules for doing things…Now they’re finding it might be a lot better with a distributed system with many little processors and simpler sensors and simple rules, which end up creating fairly complicated behaviors as emergent properties, just as how a flock of birds can make intricate patterns without any one bird choosing these patterns.” (Choi 2009) Thus, not having a nervous system with a brain does not mean you are a living plant-like rock creature incapable of experiencing the world. 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